Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

Advanced Adhesion for Electronics


Q & A

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Sandblasting is a process used to remove surface layers of material from metal parts. It works by using compressed air to blast away the top layer of material. The force of the air blasts off particles of the material, which fall back onto the part. This process removes the outermost layer of material, leaving behind a smooth finish. Read More
Holographic vinyl is a new type of vinyl that uses light waves to produce images on its surface. This technology allows for unique designs and colors that cannot be achieved using traditional methods. Read More

Adhesive Strength Test

Loop Tack Test

Several methods are used to measure the tackiness of pressure sensitive adhesives attached to films, labels, stickers, and tapes. These include loop tests and 90º and 180º peel tests. In the loop test, a loop of adhesive tape attached to the probe of the testing machine makes contact with a horizontal surface and is pulled away after a short time. This measures the maximum force needed to peel off the tape from the substrate. In the 90º peel test, the adhesive tape is attached to a horizontal plate with the other end sticking up perpendicularly, forming an “L” shape. In the 180º peel test, the adhesive tape is placed vertically between the peel test grips with the free end of the tape gripped by the top forming a tight “U” shape. The 90º and 180º peel adhesion tests measure the constant force required to peel off the tape rather than the maximum force. The 90º peel adhesion test normally gives a lower value than the 180º peel adhesion test.

Celadon Technology Company Ltd. specializes in the production of premium vinyl graphic products and adhesive systems used in commercial and industrial applications. We implement stringent quality control procedures to ensure our products are of the best quality. We also have a dedicated research and development team to provide custom solutions to our client’s needs. Visit our website to learn more about us.


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Cast PVC

The term “cast” refers to the manufacturing process of cast PVC. Cast PVC is produced by first dissolving the PVC, plasticizer, and colorant using a solvent. Consequently, a thin film of the liquid mixture will then be poured onto a casting sheet. After that, it will be dried and cured in a series of ovens at a high temperature, producing a flexible film with a smooth finish. The casting sheet determines the texture of the surface of the film.

Because the temperature used during drying and curing processes is higher than that used in applications of the final product, cast PVC can withstand distortion, degeneration, warping, or degradation due to heat. It also has high dimensional stability since no pressure is applied during the production process. In addition, cast PVC is thinner, softer, and more flexible than calendered PVC, making them suitable for use in complex applications such as vehicle wrapping. Films produced by casting can last up to 12 years. However, casting is not suitable for large-scale production because of its high production cost; it also cannot produce wide-width films.

Calendered PVC

Matt Opaque Color Vinyl for Car Wrapping

Calendered PVC is created by melting the PVC, plasticizer, and colorant altogether. The molten materials then are pressed by calendering rollers to achieve the desired width, thickness, and surface finish of the film. Calendered PVC is thinner and less resilient than cast PVC, but calendered PVC is suitable for many applications. It is usually used for short to medium-term applications that do not require conforming around complex surfaces such as point-of-purchase displays, window graphics, and partial wraps. The production cost of calendered PVC is lower than that of cast PVC because solvent and molds are not needed in manufacturing. Its service life usually lasts from two to seven years depending on the type of plasticizer used.


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Monomers are molecules that contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms. Polymers are made up of many monomers linked together. Calendering is a process where polymer films are stretched and heated to make them thinner and stronger. The most common types of calendered films are monomeric and polymeric. Monomeric films are usually used for packaging applications because they are strong and flexible. Polymeric films are often used for printing on paper products.


The Calendering Process

In order to create a calendered film, we first need to melt PVC resin, plasticizers and colorants together. Once melted, we pass the PVC through a series of rollers which flatten out the material and smooth out any imperfections. After passing through the rollers, the PVC is winded onto a spool.


About Plasticizer

The most common type of plasticizer used in vinyl flooring is phthalate esters. Phthalates are chemicals that soften plastics so they can be molded easily. Vinyl flooring contains a lot of phthalates because they make the vinyl flexible enough to mold. But these chemicals aren’t good for people. They can cause health issues like reproductive problems, hormone disruption, and cancer. That’s why we use only high quality REACH certificated plasticizers that don’t contain any harmful chemicals.


What do Monomeric and Polymeric mean?

Mono- and polymers are both chemical compounds that consist of long chains of atoms. The difference between mono- and polymers is how these chains are connected together. In monomers, each chain is attached to only one other chain. This makes monomers very small molecules. In polymers, on the other hand, there are multiple connections between chains. These connections make polymers much larger than monomers.


Polymeric Films

Polymeric films are made of long-chain plasticizers. Longer chain molecules bond together much better than short ones, so polymers are much stronger than monomers. They also have a higher glass transition temperature, which makes them more resistant to heat and cold. Polymer films are typically thicker than monomeric films, ranging from 100–400 microns. This allows them to withstand harsh environments like snow, rain, wind, and salt spray. Polymers also have a longer-lasting outdoor durability than monomers.


Polymeric PVC film has a better outdoor durability

Monomeric Films

Monomeric films are made of short-chain plasticizers. These short chains do not bind into the film very well. Overall, the short-chain plasticizers tend to migrate out of the film, making it brittle. In addition, monomeric film varies in thickness. It can be between 80 400 micron thick and has a tendency to shrink. especially the softer and flexible film. Therefore, these films are best for indoor flat applications and have a 3 – 5 year outdoor durability. Lastly, monomeric films have short-term outdoor durability that varies by manufacturer, making them more economical.


Monomeric PVC film is suitable for indoor or short-term outdoor application


Polymeric Film

Monomeric Films

  • Tends to shrink
  • Flat short-term applications
  • 3 – 5 Years outdoor durability
  • Economically priced
  • Moderately shelf life
  • Mild/soft curves medium-term applications
  • 5 – 7 Years outdoor durability
  • Moderately priced
  • longer shelf life



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Parts of the Bond

The bonding layer made by an adhesive tape, shown macroscopically in the image below, presents a cross-section of a bond. The layer consists of an adhesion zone, cohesion zone, and a transition layer.

Parts of a Bond

The adhesion zone is the interfacial layer between the adhesive and the substrate. The cohesion zone is the pure adhesive layer that holds the adhesive and the backing material, or another substrate if the adhesive is unsupported. The transition layer is intermediate between the adhesion and cohesion zones.

Mechanism of Action

The mechanism of adhesive tape bonding occurs as follows. These steps can be accomplished instantly after the activation of the pressure-sensitive adhesive.

  1. The pressure-sensitive adhesive on the tape is made to contact with the substrate by minimal pressure.
  2. Adhesive increases its surface area and penetrates through the surface of the substrate.
  3. Adhesive sets on the substrate, producing a strong bond.

The three elements of a pressure-sensitive adhesive tape to achieve a successful bond are adhesion, cohesion, and tackiness.


  • Adhesion: Adhesion refers to the ability of an adhesive to stick on the surface of the substrate through adhesive forces. Adhesive forces refer to the attraction of two different materials. When the substrate and the adhesive molecules come in close proximity, adhesion forces occur at the microscopic level through intermolecular forces (e.g., van der Waals forces, dispersion forces) between them.

    Surface energy is one of the properties which determines the wettability of the substrate when it comes in contact with the adhesive. Wettability is important to penetrate the surface of the substrate, thus making a continuous bond.

    Surface energy is defined as the sum of the intermolecular forces, and the attraction and repulsion energies which a liquid exerts on the surface of a solid. If the substrate has high surface energy, the adhesive will easily flow on its surface and more surface area will be covered. Some of the high-energy substrates include polycarbonate, polyvinyl chloride, and zinc. On the other hand, if the substrate has low surface energy, the adhesive will build up as “small beads” and only a small area will be covered. Low surface energy substrates include Teflon, rubber, powder coatings, etc.

    High and Low Surface Energy

    Surface contaminants prevent the fusion of the adhesive into the substrate. Therefore, it is important to keep the surface free from grease, dirt, and moisture before application of the adhesive tape.

  • Cohesion: Cohesion is the inner strength of the adhesive. It refers to the bonding of the adhesive within itself. Cohesion holds the adhesive layer intact and prevents it from splitting.

    Cohesive forces attract the neighboring molecules of a liquid by pulling it inward. Molecules at the surface of the liquid have greater attractive forces that bind them together. This phenomenon is responsible for the property of a liquid called surface tension. Surface tension is the ability of the adhesive to resist deformation on the surface of a solid, thus reducing its surface area. In the case of adhesive tapes, the molecules of the adhesive must be strong cohesive forces to hold and maintain the bond over time.

    Silicone is an example of a liquid with high surface tension. If silicone is present as a coating on the surface of the substrate, it will be difficult to be wetted by the adhesive. If used as an adhesive, on the other hand, it will produce a durable bond.

    Adhesion and cohesion must be considered when formulating or choosing the right adhesives. An ideal bond consists of a combination of a high surface energy substrate and a low surface tension adhesive. To achieve good wetting of the substrate, adhesive forces must be greater compared to cohesive forces and the contact angle must be less than 90°.

  • Tackiness: Tackiness refers to the characteristic of a pressure-sensitive tape by which the adhesive sticks to the surface of the substrate under minimal pressure. All pressure-sensitive adhesives are activated by an initial finger pressure applied to the tape, usually from 14.5 to 29 psi. The required pressure and contact time for the adhesive tape to stick varies according to the type of adhesive and substrate material. Less pressure and contact time are required to stick for adhesive tapes with higher tack.

    The phenomenon described is attributed to the viscoelasticity of the adhesive at room temperature. Viscoelastic objects are materials that possess both viscous and elastic characteristics. When gentle pressure is applied to the tape, it decreases its viscosity thus encouraging flow on the substrate at the microscopic level. Due to its elastic property, the original viscosity is regained with stronger intermolecular force with the substrate.

    The Rolling Ball Test and Loop Tack Test are the most common quality control checks used to assess the tackiness of the adhesive tapes being produced.

    Rolling Ball Test
    • Rolling Ball Test: The rolling ball test directly gauges the adhesive behavior of the adhesive tape. A steel ball with a standard weight and diameter is made to roll from the top of an inclined track which consists of the sticky side of the tape. The tackiness is measured by the distance traveled by the ball on the sticky tape track; the shorter the distance, the greater the tack.

      Loop Tack Test
    • Loop Tack Test: The loop tack test is a quantitative and repeatable method to assess adhesive tape tackiness. A loop of adhesive tape is attached to the probe of a tensile tester machine. The loop is made to contact with a horizontal surface for a short time, then the tool pulls it away. Numerical values of the bond’s tensile strength are recorded and subjected to evaluation.


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Pressure-sensitive adhesive tapes consist of a backing material film coated with an adhesive intended for relatively low-stress applications. Light pressure, usually done by the fingertips, is applied to initiate the binding. In the sticking process, the fluid properties of the pressure-sensitive adhesive change rapidly to flow and set in the surface of the substrate. Read More
Vinyl plotting is a process that uses a vinyl cutting plotter to create designs, graphics, and lettering on vinyl material. This versatile process is used in a wide range of industries, including signage, graphics, and apparel production.Vinyl plotting starts with a vinyl cutting plotter, which is a machine that uses a sharp blade to cut vinyl material into specific shapes and designs. The vinyl plotter is operated using specialized software, which is used to control the movement of the blade and the depth of the cuts.The vinyl material is loaded into the plotter and the blade is positioned over the material. The software then directs the blade to cut the vinyl material into the desired shape or design. The cut vinyl can then be removed from the plotter and transferred onto various surfaces, such as walls, vehicles, and apparel.One of the key benefits of vinyl plotting is its versatility. The process can be used to create a wide range of designs, graphics, and lettering, making it a popular choice for businesses and individuals looking to create custom vinyl products.Another benefit of vinyl plotting is its accuracy. The software used to control the vinyl cutting plotter ensures that cuts are precise and consistent, resulting in high-quality vinyl products. This accuracy makes vinyl plotting an ideal solution for creating detailed graphics and designs that require exact measurements.In addition to its versatility and accuracy, vinyl plotting is also a cost-effective solution for creating custom vinyl products. The process is fast and efficient, allowing businesses and individuals to create high-quality vinyl products quickly and at a low cost.In conclusion, vinyl plotting is a valuable process for businesses and individuals looking to create custom vinyl products. With its versatility, accuracy, and cost-effectiveness, vinyl plotting is an ideal solution for creating custom vinyl graphics, designs, and lettering for a wide range of applications. Whether you're a sign maker, graphic designer, or apparel manufacturer, vinyl plotting is a valuable tool for taking your business or project to the next level. Read More
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Durable Laminate Films: Enhance and Protect Your Prints

Celadon Technology Company Ltd., established in 2007, is a leading ISO-certified manufacturer specializing in high-quality self-adhesive films and precision-coated products. With over a decade of experience, Celadon excels in producing Color Vinyl, Laminate Film, Double-Coated Tape, and CAD/CAM Film, serving diverse industries such as automotive, digital printing, and signage. Their commitment to innovation, quality control, and customer satisfaction positions them as a global leader in adhesive and coating solutions, offering customized products that meet the highest standards of durability and performance.

Celadon Technology Company Ltd. offers unparalleled services in precision coating and adhesive product solutions. Their expert team is committed to delivering innovative services across industries, focusing on customer needs and ensuring quality at every stage. From consultation to custom product development, they provide comprehensive support to ensure their clients achieve their goals with the best in class adhesive and coating technologies.

Celadon Tech has been providing customers with premium color vinyl for automotive wrapping, both with advanced technology and 12 years of experience, Celadon Tech ensures that each customer's requirements are met.

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